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manganese to give a proper iron for the basic Bessemer, and it is necessary to add other ores which are richer in these elements; consequently, most of the product goes into foundry and forge pig for use at home and abroad. The output of Middlesbrough furnaces, especially those of Bell Brothers, forms the foundation of foundry practice throughout the northern part of the Continent; it is often used alone, but is mixed with iron of lower phosphorus to make the better class of castings. On another page, in the discussion of Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, further remarks will be made on the lean ore deposits of England, the ore beds of
.   Wynyard
0Thorpe Thewlea
Cariton o                    o
Beaton Carew,
Ormesbr0             Hormanby             MINEa                    "Boosbeok
Button Gate                 -*   Aysdale
these three counties being practically of the same geological formation as the Cleveland beds. Tig. XXIII-C shows the relation of the coal field of Durham to the district around Middlesbrough, while Fig. XXIII-D shows the Cleveland ore deposits.*
The Cleveland ore is a carbonate and the composition is given by Kirchhoff as follows:
* These maps are from letters written by C. Kirchhoff, Editor of The Iron Age, who has granted me permission to use them. I am indebted to the same letters for much information concerning this district.